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1. As an example of this scholarship, see Anne Deighton (ed), Building Postwar Europe---National Decision-Makers and European Institutions, 1948-1963 (London 1995); see also proceedings of the conference Acceleration, Deepening and Enlarging: the European Economic Community, 1957-1963 organised by Anne Deighton and Alan Milward, St Antony's, Oxford, 21-24 March 1996.

2. But overall, however, research in this area is in the very early stages. The first study, based on the records of the Department of Finance, was written by a former official and participant in the negotiations of 1972. See D.J. Maher, The Tortuous Path: The Course of Ireland's entry into the EEC 1948-1973 (Dublin 1986). Some background material of relevance may also be found in Ronan Fanning's official history of the Department of Finance, The Irish Department of Finance 1922-1958 (Dublin 1978). See also my general survey, Ireland and Europe, 1919-1989 (Cork and Dublin 1990).

3. Two young scholars have been working on doctoral topics in the general area. Both Maurice Fitzgerald, Department of History and Civilisation, European University Institute, and Paula Willie Bower, Department of History, University College Cork are working on doctoral theses in this general area.

4. The names which feature most frequently in this article are the following: Seán Lemass (1899-1971), the Taoiseach [Prime Minister] and leader of the Fianna Fáil government; Frank Aiken (1898-1983), Minister for External Relations; Dr Ken Whitaker (1916-), Secretary, Department of External Affairs; Cornelius Cremin (1908-1987), Secretary, Department of External Affairs; Hugh McCann (1916-1981), Ambassador to the Court of St. James; Denis McDonald (1910-1986), Ambassador to Paris; Brian Gallagher (1909-1968), Ambassador to the Netherlands up to 1962 and then Ambassador to Germany; and Thomas J. Kiernan (1897-1967), Ambassador, United States.

5. The Irish government had acquired a building to house the permanent representation in 1962. It remained unoccupied until 1963 when Biggar took over the position as Permanent Representative to the EEC. The failure to open the permanent representation earlier may be attributed to administrative infighting to determine which department would have the responsibility. Source: Conversation in July 1996 with Mr Noel Dorr, former secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs.

6. The Irish government, which first considered joining the EEC in 1960, did not transfer additional staff abroad in anticipation of the need to prepare the ground in the capitals of the Six for the formal application when it was submitted on 31 July 1961. Neither did any of the Irish embassies in the EEC, including Brussels, receive any additional staff to help deal with the obstacles which arose in relation to entry to negotiations.

7. I had the good fortune to know Cornelius Cremin well during his retirement and I interviewed him a number of times during the 1980s. I interviewed Dr Ken Whitaker for this article in July 1996.

8. Dermot Keogh, Twentieth Century Ireland---Nation and State (Dublin 1994) 64-242

9. See Brendan Walsh, `Economic Growth and Development, 1945-70', in Joe Lee (ed), Ireland 1945-1970 (Dublin 1979) 28-29.

10. For general background to the history of that department, see Mary E. Daly, Industrial Development and Irish National Identity, 1922-1939 (Dublin 1992). For one of the best overviews of the period see, Brian Girvin, Between Two Worlds---Politics and Economy in Independent Ireland (Dublin 1989) 169-201; see also Joe Lee, Ireland 1912-1985---Politics and Society (Cambridge 1989) 329-410.

11. Girvin, Between Two Worlds, 190-192.

12. The interaction between civil servants, academics and the business community is an area yet to be explored by historians for Ireland in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Both Lynch and Ryan were, according to Ronan Fanning, consulted in the drafting of Dr.Whitaker's Economic Development which was published under his own name in November 1958 almost simultaneously with the White Paper entitled: Programme for Economic Expansion. See Ronan Fanning, The Irish Department of Finance, 1922-1958 (Dublin 1978) 516.

13. Joe Lee, `Economic Development in Historical Perspective', in John F. McCarthy, Planning Ireland's Future---The Legacy of T.K. Whitaker (Dublin 1990) 121.

14. See Brendan Walsh, `Economic Growth and Development, 1945-70', in Joe Lee (ed), Ireland 1945-1970 (Dublin 1979) 28-29.

15. See, in particular, personal file in possession of Dr. T.K. Whitaker which he kindly allowed me to consult in July 1996.

16. This view is not universally accepted. Dr Whitaker has traced the process himself in Interests, 55-79

17. Quoted in Brendan Walsh, `Economic Growth and Development, 1945-70', in Joe Lee (ed), Ireland 1945-1970 (Dublin 1979) 29.

18. See Robert J. Savage, Irish Television---The Political and Social Origins (Cork 1996). For a general discussion on Irish society in the 1930s, see Dermot Keogh, Twentieth Century Ireland, 243-294.

19. Richard Breen et al. Understanding Contemporary Ireland---State, Class and Development in the Republic of Ireland (Dublin 1990) 38.

20. Whitaker to Charlie Murray [Department of the Taoiseach], 27 November 1959. The personal file from which this minute has been taken was kindly loaned to me by Dr Ken Whitaker. Referred to in future as `Whitaker file'.

21. Whitaker to Maurice Moynihan, Secretary, Department of the Taoiseach, 27 November 1959 (Whitaker file).

22. See Whitaker file.

23. See minute by Secretary of the Department of External Affairs, Con Cremin, 27 October 1959, of meeting between Lemass and the secretaries of Finance and External Affairs, and the deputy secretaries of Industry and Commerce and Agriculture.

24. MacCarthy to Whitaker, 22 December 1959 (Whitaker file).

25. Whitaker to MacCarthy, 23 December 1959 (Whitaker file).

26. See Miriam Hederman O'Brien, The Road to Europe---Irish Attitudes 1948-61 (Dublin 1983) 103-111.

27. Anne Deighton and Piers Ludlow, `The First British Application to the EEC' in Deighton and Ludlow (ed), Building Postwar Europe, 111.

28. Con Cremin, draft minute, 5 November 1962, Department of the Taoiseach (cited henceforth D/T) S17246 S/62, National Archives Institute, Bishop Streed, Dublin (referred to henceforth as NAI). This exchange occurred during talks in London which ended with the signing of a trade agreement in 1960. [This was replaced by the Anglo-Irish Free Trade Area Agreement which was signed on 14 December 1965.]

29. A white paper on Ireland and the EEC was published in early July.

30. Subsequently, Irish officials were to feel that the absence of any reference to the country's commitment to the political dimension of the EEC had been a mistake which they were obliged to correct throughout the latter part of 1961. See Maher, The Tortuous Path, 136-137

31. Maher, The Tortuous Path, 142

32. Dr Whitaker recalled one anecdote about visiting Luxembourg where they were well received by a friend know to him from the world bank. `So glad to see you again and I remember your wonderful Scotch'. When Whitaker reminded him that it must have been `Irish' he said he was only using the term `Scotch' in the general sense.

33. Whitaker interview, Dublin, July 1996.

34. Lemass, in a speech to the Cork Chamber of Commerce on 11 November, spoke of the great economic progress enjoyed by Ireland in recent years, and welcomed the immediate political obligations of membership of the community being authoritatively defined. Although not a member of NATO, Lemass said that Ireland was not unwilling to participate in the movement for European integration. Maher, The Tortuous Path, 144.

35. `Whitaker keen to exclude NATO option from EEC talks', Irish Times, 1/2 January 1993.

36. `Whitaker keen to exclude NATO option from EEC talks', Irish Times, 1/2 January 1993.

37. Dr. Whitaker, who made no claim to have been responsible for the changes, did mention one change in particular which was made to the text in relation to neutrality.

38. Maher, The Tortuous Path, 375-376. Maher reproduces the entire text.

39. Biggar to Cremin 30 January 1962 [dated 1961 in error] and Ambassador MacDonald, 31 January 1962, D/T S17246A/62, NAI.

40. The economic counsellor at the Irish embassy in Brussels, Dr Donal O'Sullivan, heard from Van Costen of the Netherland's mission that the feeling in The Hague was `it will now be difficult for any member government to justify opposition to your being accepted as full members'. Dr O'Sullivan to Cremin, 29 January 1962, D/T S17246A/62, NAI.

41. See text of speech delivered in Conway's Hotel, Claremorris, on 5 February 1962 on file D/T, S17246A/62, NAI.

42. See minute on file D/T, S17246A/62, NAI.

43. Whitaker to Nolan, 10 February 1962, S17246A/62, NAI.

44. Dáil debates, Vol. 193, Cols. 6-8, 14 February 1962.

45. It is worth noting two points here. The secretary of the Department of Defence did not participate in the EEC inter-departmental committee discussions. There is no evidence that the views of the Minister for Defence were sought on the medium to long-term security and defence implications of Ireland's proposed membership of the EEC.

46. Alain Peyrefitte, C'etait de Gaulle (Paris 1994) 434-435.

47. Minutes of meeting of departmental secretaries, 14 February 1962, D/T, S17246A/62, NAI.

48. Minutes of meeting of departmental secretaries, 14 February 1962, D/T, S17246A/62, NAI.

49. Cremin note on Biggar report, 28 February 1962, D/T, S17246D, NAI.

50. Whitaker to Cremin, 1 March 1962, D/T, S17246D, NAI.

51. The above lines are my interpretation of Whitaker's position.

52. Minutes of departmental secretaries' meeting, 1 March 1962, D/T, S17246D, NAI.

53. Transcript of Lemass interview with Dr Garret FitzGerald, 15 March 1962, D/T, S17246D/62, NAI. A journalist colleague of FitzGerald's, Desmond Fisher, had interviewed Walter Hallstein around that time. While he declined to speak explicitly about Ireland and NATO, he did have the following observations to make. He said `the nature of neutrality has changed'. He said that the art of diplomacy was not to act in a way that would win the next war but would rather ensure that there would be no war.

54. MacDonald to Cremin, 3 March 1962, D/T, S17246D/62, NAI.

55. Cremin to Whitaker, 6 March 1962, D/T, S17246D, NAI.

56. Biggar to Cremin, 13 March 1962, D/T, S17246D/62, NAI.

57. McCann to Cremin, 9 March 1962, D/T, S17246D/62, NAI.

58. Irish Ambassador in Bonn to Cremin, 27 March 1962, D/T, S17246F/62, NAI.

59. Meeting of Departmental secretaries, 4 May 1962, D/T, S17246G/62, NAI.

60. Text of communique, 12 May 1962, D/T, S17246G/62, NAI.

61. Interview with Dr Whitaker, July 1996.

62. Text of memorandum, 24 May 1962, D/T, S17246G/62, NAI.

63. Brian Gallagher to Cremin, 25 June 1962, D/T, 17246K/62, NAI.

64. McCann to Cremin, 27 June 1962, D/T, S17246K/62, NAI.

65. MacDonald to Cremin, 14 June 1962, D/T, S17246K/62, NAI.

66. MacDonald to Cremin, 29 June 1962, D/T, S17246K/62, NAI.

67. Departmental secretaries' meeting, 3 July 1962, D/T,S17246K/62, NAI.

68. See Biggar reports for July, D/T, S17246L/62, NAI.

69. O'Sullivan to Cremin, 18 July 1962, D/T, S17246L/62, NAI.

70. Biggar to Cremin, 25 July 1962, D/T, S17246L/62, NAI.

71. Biggar to Cremin, 25 July 1962, D/T, S17246L/62, NAI.

72. See correspondence for August, D/T,S17246N/62, NAI.

73. Cremin/Lemass meeting, 16 September 1962, D/T,S17246N/62, NAI.

74. D/T, S17246N/62, NAI.

75. The Irish Press, 4 September 1962.

76. See The Irish Press and The Irish Times, 6 September 1962.

77. The Irish Independent, 6 September 1962.

78. Ludwig Gelder, `Ireland ready for EEC political and defence effects', The Irish Times, 4 October 1962.

79. Biggar to Cremin, 19 September 1962, S17246O/62, Department of the Taoiseach, NAI.

80. Ambassador MacDonald saw Soutou.

81. See Jean Lacouture, De Gaulle: The Ruler, 1945-1970 (London 1991) 341.

82. Biggar to Cremin, 21 and 24 September 1962, D/T, S17246Q/62, NAI.

83. Ambassador Lennon, The Hague, to Cremin, 1 October 1962, D/T, S17246Q/62, NAI.

84. Dáil Debates, Vol. 197, Col. 3, 30 October 1962.

85. Questions had been put down by the leader of Fine Gael, James Dillon, by three members of the Labour Party, Patrick Corish, William Norton and Seán Dunne, and by Noel Browne and Jack McQuillan.

86. Dáil debates, Vol. 197, Col. 3, 30 October 1962.

87. Dáil Debates, Vol. 197, Cols. 3-4, 30 October 1962.

88. Whitaker, Interests, 77.

89. The Irish Times, 12 May 1971.

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