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1. I would like to thank Dr. Linda T. Darling for her help and suggestions on this essay.
2. Götz Schregle, Die Sultanin von Ägypten (Wiesbaden 1961) 3-7.
3. Hereafter, I will refer to this sultan as `Aiyub' or `Sultan Aiyub'.
4. I am using these divisions because most commentators utilize them. Schregle, for example, laid out this plan in pp 6-7 of his work. Much of this section is based on Schregle, 3-7 and the Concise Encyclopedia of Arabic Civilization, ed. Stephan Ronart and Nancy Ronart (New York 1960) 481.
5. In Baibar-Roman's account from either the fourteenth or fifteenth century, Shajara was identified with the Caliph's daughter Fatima. However, no other account makes this claim. See Teil C in Schregle's work for more information on Baibar's writings concerning Shajara.
6. The sultana's exact role has remained a question of debate ranging from views of her as an absolute empress down to that of a Mamluk puppet.
7. Fatima Mernissi, as noted below, commented that Shajara yielded too easily to the Caliph's demands for her abdication. Given how easily Turanshah had been overthrown and assassinated, however, she probably made the right move. The Mamluks' opposition to Shajara's plot against Aybek and her subsequent arrest and execution in 1257 seem to support this conclusion.
8. There has also been debate over when Aybek married Shajara. Most sources seem to agree that they were married in 1250 but others suggest 1251 and one even put the marriage as late as 1255.
9. Shajara's motivation and her desire to carry through with this plot has also remained a topic of debate.
10. Fatima Mernissi, The Forgotten Queens of Islam, trans. Mary Jo Lakeland (Minneapolis 1993) 11.
11. Jonathan Riley-Smith, `The Crusading Movement and Historians', in Jonathan Riley-Smith (ed.) The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades (Oxford 1995) 5. At this point, I respectfully disagree with Dr. Riley-Smith's findings. In certain conservative circles, this paradigm has continued to hold sway over the historiography of the Crusades.
12. ibid., 5-13.
13. Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Crusades: a Short History (New Haven 1986) 200-201.
14. Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, III (Cambridge 1987) 265, 269.
15. ibid., 265, 269, 272-273.
16. Joseph R. Strayer, `The Crusades of St. Louis' in Robert L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard (ed.) The Later Crusades, 1189-1311, vol. 2 of Kenneth M. Setton et al. (ed.) A History of the Crusades (Madison 1969).
17. Hamilton A. R. Gibb, `The Aiyubids', in Wolff & Hazard, The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 712.
18. Riley-Smith, Crusades, 200.
19. ibid., 200-201.
20. Jean Richard, Saint Louis: roi d'une France féodale soutien de la Terre Sainte (Fayard 1983) 222. I also consulted the translation of this work by Simon Lloyd and Jean Berell (Cambridge 1992), but given its poor reviews, I used it only to check my own rough translation.
21. Karen Armstrong, Holy War: the Crusades and their Impact on Today's World (New York 1991) 444.
22. Christopher Marshall, Warfare in the Latin East, 1192-1291 (Cambridge 1994) 30.
23. Ulrich Haarman et al., Geschichte der arabischen Welt (München 1987) 210, 220.
24. Haarman states concerning the marriage of Aybek and Shajara that Aybek married the sultana because she was `the widow of his lord' (Witwe as-Saliah Aiyubs). This reference came from page 220 of this work.
25. Amin Maalouf, The Crusades Through Arab Eyes, trans. Jon Rothschild (London 1984) xi.
26. ibid., 238.
27. ibid., 238-245.
28. ibid., 245.
29. Sir John Glubb, Soldiers of Fortune: the Story of the Mamlukes (New York 1973) 39. `Capable and beautiful, she must have been one of very few women in history who commanded an army in a major battle, as she did against Louis IX, King of France ...'.
30. ibid., 49-50.
31. Robert Irwin, The Middle East in the Middle Ages: the Early Mamluk Sultanate 1250-1382 (London 1986) 20.
32. ibid., 26-27.
33. Desmond Stewart, Cairo: 5500 Years (New York 1968) 105.
34. ibid., 105-106.
35. ibid., 108.
36. ibid., 109.
37. Mustafa Ziada, `The Mamluk Sultans to 1293', in Wolff & Hazard, The Later Crusades, 1189-1311, 735-758. Ziada's piece, while complementing its companion works by Strayer and Gibb in Setton's A History of the Crusades, belongs with the articles in this section due to the preponderance of Middle Eastern sources in its citations.
38. ibid., 741.
39. R. Steven Humphreys, From Saladin to the Mongols: the Ayyubids of Damascus 1193-1260 (Albany 1977) 260-330.
40. Syedah F. Sadeque, Baybars I of Egypt (Oxford 1956) 13-14.
41. ibid., 13.
42. ibid., 13.
43. ibid., 13-14.
44. ibid., 14.
45. Abdul-Aziz Khowaiter, Baibars the First: his Endeavors and Achievements (London 1978) 34-35.
46. Susan J. Staffa, `Dimensions of Women's Power in Historic Cairo', in Robert Olson, et al. (ed.) Islamic and Middle Eastern Societies: a Festschrift in Honor of Professor Wadie Jwaideh (Brattleboro 1987) 67.
47. ibid., 68.
48. ibid., 68.
49. ibid., 68.
50. Mernissi, 91, 99.
51. ibid., 14.
52. ibid., 90.
53. Schregle, 3.
54. ibid., 4. ("Eine Frau als Herrscheiein über das Ägypten des 13 Jahrhunderts--das ist angesichts der bekannten Stellung der F[r]au im Islam ein Errignis, das notwendigerweise eine ganze Fulle von Fragen historicher, rechtsolcher und kultureller Art in sich schleisst ...")
55. ibid., 34.
56. ibid., 97 and 104.
57. ibid., 123.
58. ibid., 135-136.
59. Armstrong, iv-xvi.
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