NOTES

1 Y. Guclu, ‘Turco-British relations on the eve of the Second World War’, Middle Eastern Studies 39 (2003) 159-205: 159.

2 ibid. 160.

3 I. Uzgel, ‘Italya ile Iliskiler’, in B. Oran (ed), Turk Dis Politikasi, Kurtulus Savasi’ndan Bugune Olgular, Belgeler, Yorumlar, (1919-1980) (2 vols, Istanbul 2000) i, 295.

4 Guclu, ‘Turco-British relations’, 168.

5 I. Bozdag, Toprakta Bile Bitmeyen Kavga (Ataturk-Inonu, Inonu-Bayar), (Istanbul 1993), 27.

6 Adapted from: http://www.kamubirlikhareketi.com/ (accessed 12 February 2005).

7 Bozdag, Toprakta Bile Bitmeyen Kavga, 144.

8 ibid. 36.

9 ibid. 22.

10 D. Barlas, Etatism and diplomacy in Turkey: economic and foreign policy strategies in an uncertain world, 1929-1939, (New York 1998), 199.

11 Council of Ministers Discussions (CAB) 23/86, CAB. 63 (36), 4 Nov. 1938.

12 For the terms, see http://ww2.boom.ru/Africa/390522.html (accessed 12 February 2005).

13 From 1920 until 1946, Syria remained a French mandate.

14 S. S. Aydemir, Ikinci Adam, (Istanbul 2000) 237.

15 F. Armaoglu, ‘Ikinci Dunya Harbi’nde Turkiye’, Siyasal Bilgiler Fakultesi Dergisi 13 (1958) 136-58: 147.

16 Aydemir, Ikinci Adam, 122.

17 T. Ataov, Turkish foreign policy 1939-1945, (Ankara 1965), 66.

18 Turkiye Cumhuriyeti Disisleri Bakanligi Arsivleri/Archives of the Turkish Foreign Ministry, F.O. 371/E4151/143/44.

19 S. Deringil, ‘The preservation of Turkey’s neutrality during the Second World War: 1940’, Middle Eastern Studies 18 (1982) 30-52: 31.

20 A. J. Klinghoffer, The Soviet Union and international oil politics, (New York 1977), 40.

21 ibid.

22 Deringil, ‘The preservation of Turkey’s neutrality’, 36.

23 B. Oran, ‘Savas Disi Kalmak Icin One Surulen Hukuksal Gerekceler’, in Oran (ed.), Turk Dis Politikasi, i, 394.

24 Protocol No. 2 was also invoked when Italy invaded Greece, Turkey’s neighbour.

25 Aydemir, Ikinci Adam, 146.

26 Although Bulgaria did not join the occupation of Greece, it nevertheless ‘officially’ forged an alliance with the Axis Powers on 1 March 1941.

27 Deringil, ‘The preservation of Turkey’s neutrality’, 34.

28 M. Toker, Demokrasimizin Ismet Pasa’li Yillari 1944-1973: Tek Partiden Cok Partiye 1944-1950 (Istanbul 1998), 20.

29 M. Aydin, ‘1941-1943: German pressures over Turkey’, in Oran (ed.), Turk Dis Politikasi, i, 442.

30 Deringil, ‘The preservation of Turkey’s neutrality’, 46.

31 R. J. Sonntag and J. S. Beddie, Nazi-Soviet relations 1939-1941, (Westport CN, 1976), 244-6.

32 Deringil, ‘The preservation of Turkey’s neutrality’, 33.

33 ibid. 106.

34 Toker, Demokrasimizin Ismet Pasa’li Yillari, 21.

35 Aydin, ‘1941-1943: German pressures over Turkey’, 442.

36 Prime Minister from July 1942 onwards.

37 The head of the Turkish armed forces.

38 Secretary General of Foreign Affairs; Foreign Affairs Minister from August 1943 onwards.

39 S. Calis, ‘Pan-Turkism and Europeanism: a note on Turkey’s pro-German neutrality during the Second World War’, Central Asian Survey 16 (1997) 103-14: 105.

40 Deringil, ‘The preservation of Turkey’s neutrality’, 42.

41 Aydemir, ‘1941-1943: German pressures over Turkey’, 271.

42 Aydin, ‘1941-1943: German pressures over Turkey’, 427.

43 Calis, ‘Pan-Turkism and Europeanism’, 106.

44 J. M. Landau, Pan-Turkism in Turkey: a study of irredentism (London 1981), 108-30.

45 In the two decades following the war, some of these people founded the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP). In the 1970s and 1990s they were members of several coalition governments. Today, the party is believed to have the support of around ten per cent of the Turkish electorate.

46 Aydin, ‘1941-1943: German pressures over Turkey’, 449.

47 S. Deringil, Turkish foreign policy during the Second World War: an ‘active’ neutrality, (Cambridge 1989), 130-1.

48 For example, Germans invited some leading figures like Nuri Pasha, the brother of Enver Pasha, and Generals Erkilet and Erden, to Berlin.

49 A. Aktar, Varlik Vergisi ve ‘Turklestirme’ Politikalari, (Istanbul 2000), 151.

50 ibid. 154.

51 Aydemir, ‘1941-1943: German pressures over Turkey’, 255-8.

52 Yet, at other stages during the war the Allied submarines used the Turkish coasts along the Aegean to attack certain German/Italian military sites in the area.

53 Aydin, ‘1941-1943: German pressures over Turkey’, 458.

54 Armaoglu, ‘Ikinci Dunya Harbi’nde Turkiye’, 171.

55 Aydemir, ‘1941-1943: German pressures over Turkey’, 262.

56 The US joined the war on the UK’s side following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.

57 Aydin, ‘1941-1943: German pressures over Turkey’, 463.

58 Calis, ‘Pan-Turkism and Europeanism’, 108.

59 ibid.

60 Aktar, Varlik Vergisi ve ‘Turklestirme’ Politikalari, 153.

61 Aydemir, ‘1941-1943: German pressures over Turkey’, 269.

62 M.A. Birand, Demirkirat: Bir Demokrasinin Dogusu, (Istanbul 1991), 26.

63 In his meeting with Churchill, fifteen days after the Pearl Harbor attack (when he most desperately needed some form of Turkish help), Stalin said that in the event of her active participation, Turkey should be offered the twelve Aegean islands held by Italy, south of Bulgaria and some parts of northern Syria.

 

Chronicon 2007 and author ©

Pages created by Damian Bracken